Video Game Self-efficacy and its Effect on Training Performance
This study examined the effects of using serious games for training on task performance and declarative knowledge outcomes. The purpose was to determine if serious games are more effective training tools than traditional methods. Self-efficacy, expectations for training, and engagement were considered as moderators of the relationship between type of training and task performance as well as type of training and declarative knowledge. Results of the study offered support for the potential of serious games to be more effective than traditional methods of training when it comes to task performance.
 Olson, C. K. (2010). Children’s motivations for video game play in the context of normal development. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 180-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018984.
 Przybylski, A. K., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). A motivational model of video game engagement. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 154-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019440.
 Apt, C. C. (1970). Serious games: The art and science of games that simulate life in industry, government and education. Viking, New York.
 Michael, D., & Chen, S. (2006). Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform. Boston, MA.: Thomson Course Technology.
 Zyda, M. (2005). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer,38(9), 25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mc.2005.297.
 Barlett, C. P., Anderson, C. A., & Swing, E. L. (2009). Video Game Effects—Confirmed, Suspected, and Speculative A Review of the Evidence. Simulation & Gaming, 40(3),377-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878108327539.
 Sawyer, B., & Smith, P. (2008, February). Serious games taxonomy. In Slides from the Serious Games Summit at the Game Developers Conference.
 Prensky, M. (2003). Digital game-based learning. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 21-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/950566.950596
 Beidel, E. (2012, February). Avatars invade military training systems. National Defense, 699, 10-12.
 Alvarez, C. S. (2005, November 30). Gaming is more than just play for military services. American Forces Press Service. Retrieved September 3, 2013, from http://www.defense.gov/News/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=18186
 Ke, F. (2008). A case study of computer gaming for math: Engaged learning from gameplay? Computers & Education, 51(4), 1609-1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.03.003
 Dempsey, J. V., Lucassen, B., & Rasmussen, K. (1996). The instructional gaming literature: Implications and 99 sources. University of South Carolina, College of Education.
 Randel, J. M., Morris, B. A., Wetzel, C. D., & Whitehill, B. V. (1992). The effectiveness of games for educational purposes: A review of recent research. Simulation & Gaming, 23(3), 261-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878192233001
 Leemkuil, H. (2006). Is it all in the game? Learner support in an educational knowledge management simulation game.
 Wolfe, J. (1997). The effectiveness of business games in strategic management course work. Simulation & Gaming, 28(4), 360-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878197284003
 Ricci, K. E., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1996). Do computer-based games facilitate knowledge acquisition and retention? Military Psychology, 8(4), 295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327876mp0804_3
 Shin, N., Sutherland, L. M., Norris, C. A., & Soloway, E. (2012). Effects of game technology on elementary student learning in mathematics. British journal of educational technology, 43(4), 540-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01197.x
 Sitzmann, T. (2011). A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel psychology,64(2), 489-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01190.x
 Vogel, J. J., Vogel, D. S., Cannon-Bowers, J., Bowers, C. A., Muse, K., & Wright, M. (2006). Computer gaming and interactive simulations for learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(3), 229-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/FLHV-K4WA-WPVQ-H0YM
 Wouters, P., van der Spek, E., & Van Oostendorp, H. (2009). Current practices in serious game research: A review from a learning outcomes perspective. Games-based learning advancements for multi-sensory human computer interfaces: techniques and effective practices, 232-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-360-9.ch014
 Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
 Cantor, J. (1997). Experiential Learning in Higher Education: Linking Classroom and Community. ERIC Digest. Lanham, MD, USA: Education Resources Information Centre. Last retrieved January, 10, 2006.
 Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.
 Browne, M. N., & Freeman, K. (2000). Distinguishing features of critical thinking classrooms. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(3), 301-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713699143
 Lainema, T. (2003). Enhancing organizational business process perception: Experiences from constructing and applying a dynamic business simulation game. Turku School of Economics and Business Administration.
 Gredler, M. E. (1996). 17. Educational Games and Simulations: A Technology in Search of a (research) Paradigm. Technology, 39, 521-540.
 Isaacs, W., & Senge, P. (1992). Overcoming limits to learning in computer-based learning environments. European Journal of Operational Research, 59(1), 183-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(92)90014-Z
 Nielsen-Englyst, L. (2003). Game design for imaginative conceptualisation. In Proceedings of the international workshop on experimental interactive learning in industrial management, Allborg (pp. 149-164).
 Senge, P. M., & Lannon, C. (1990). Managerial microworlds. Technology Review, 93(5), 63-68.
 Whicker, M. L., & Sigelman, L. (1991). Computer simulation applications: An introduction. Sage Publications.
 McKeachie, W. J. (1999). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
 Garris, R., & Ahlers, R. (2001, January). A Game-Based Training Model Development, Application, and Evaluation. In The Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC) (Vol. 2001, No. 1). National Training Systems Association.
 Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & gaming, 33(4), 441-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878102238607
 Malone, T. W. (1981). Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive science, 5(4), 333-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0504_2
 O'Neil, H. F., Wainess, R., & Baker, E. L. (2005). Classification of learning outcomes: Evidence from the computer games literature. The Curriculum Journal, 16(4), 455-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585170500384529
 Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and higher education, 8(1), 13-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.12.001
 Kato, P. M. (2010). Video games in health care: Closing the gap. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 113-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019441
 Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge university press.
 McLellan, H. (Ed.). (1996). Situated learning perspectives. Educational Technology.
 Bransford, J., Sherwood, R., Hasselbring, T., Kinzer, C., & Williams, S. (1990). Anchored instruction: Why we need it and how technology can help. In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds.),Cognition education and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp 115-141). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Barab, S. A., Hay, K. E., & Duffy, T. (2000). Grounded constructions and how technology can help. Retrieved April, 22, 2005.
 Choi, J. I., & Hannafin, M. (1995). Situated cognition and learning environments: Roles, structures, and implications for design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43(2), 53-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02300472
 Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational technology, 35(5), 31-38.
 Kirkley, S. E., & Kirkley, J. R. (2004). Creating next generation blended learning environments using mixed reality, video games and simulations. TechTrends, 49(3), 42-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02763646
 Bonk, C. J., & Dennen, V. P. (2005). Massive multiplayer online gaming: A research framework for military training and education (No. TECH-RPT-2005-1). Indiana Univ at Bloomington.
 Leemkuil, H., Jong, T., & Ootes, S. (2000). Review of educational use of games and simulations.
 van den Bosch, K., Riemersma, J. B., Schifflett, S. G., Elliott, L. R., Salas, E., & Coovert, M. D. (2004). Reflections on scenario-based training in tactical command. Scaled Worlds: Development, validation and applications, 1-21.
 Gredler, M. E. (2004). Games and simulations and their relationships to learning. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 2, 571-581.
 Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of management Review, 14(3), 361-384.
 Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
 Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (2001). The science of training: A decade of progress. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 471-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.471
 Sanchez, A., Cannon-Bowers, J., & Bowers, C. (2010). Establishing a science of game based learning. In J. Cannon-Bowers & C. Bowers (Eds.), Serious game design and development: Technologies for training and learning (pp. 290-304). Hershey, PA: IGI Global Information Science Reference. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-739-8.ch016
 Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (2000). Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: a meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of applied psychology, 85(5), 678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.678
 Quiñones, M. A. (1995). Pretraining context effects: Training assignment as feedback. Journal of applied psychology, 80(2), 226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.226
 Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). The development of academic self-regulation: The role of cognitive and motivational factors.
 Chiaburu, D. S., & Marinova, S. V. (2005). What predicts skill transfer? An exploratory study of goal orientation, training self‐efficacy and organizational supports. International journal of training and development, 9(2), 110-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2005.00225.x
 Saks, A. M. (1995). Longitudinal field investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and newcomer adjustment. Journal of applied psychology, 80(2), 211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.211
 Frayne, C. A., & Latham, G. P. (1987). Application of social learning theory to employee self-management of attendance. Journal of applied psychology, 72(3), 387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.387
 Gist, M. E. (1989). The influence of training method on self‐efficacy and idea generation among managers. Personnel psychology, 42(4), 787-805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1989.tb00675.x
 Gist, M. E., Schwoerer, C., & Rosen, B. (1989). Effects of alternative training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of applied psychology, 74(6), 884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.6.884
 Gist, M. E., Stevens, C. K., & Bavetta, A. G. (1991). Effects of self‐efficacy and post‐training intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of complex interpersonal skills. Personnel psychology, 44(4), 837-861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00701.x
 Latham, G. P., & Frayne, C. A. (1989). Self-management training for increasing job attendance: A follow-up and a replication. Journal of Applied Psychology,74(3), 411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.411
 Stevens, C. K., Bavetta, A. G., & Gist, M. E. (1993). Gender differences in the acquisition of salary negotiation skills: the role of goals, self-efficacy, and perceived control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.5.723
 Cole, N. D., & Latham, G. P. (1997). Effects of training in procedural justice on perceptions of disciplinary fairness by unionized employees and disciplinary subject matter experts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.699
 Eden, D., & Aviram, A. (1993). Self-efficacy training to speed reemployment: Helping people to help themselves. Journal of applied Psychology, 78(3), 352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.352
 Martocchio, J. J. (1994). Effects of conceptions of ability on anxiety, self-efficacy, and learning in training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 819. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.819
 Martocchio, J. J., & Webster, J. (1992). Effects of feedback and cognitive playfulness on performance in microcomputer software training. Personnel Psychology, 45(3), 553-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00860.x
 Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (1997). Role of goal orientation, ability, need for achievement, and locus of control in the self-efficacy and goal--setting process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.792
 Stevens, C. K., & Gist, M. E. (1997). Effects of self-efficacy and goal-orientation training on negotiation skill maintenance: What are the mechanisms?. Personnel Psychology, 50(4), 955-978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb01490.x
 Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 124(2), 240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.240
 Sitzmann, T., Brown, K. G., Casper, W. J., Ely, K., & Zimmerman, R. D. (2008). A review and meta-analysis of the nomological network of trainee reactions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.280
 Alvarez, K., Salas, E., & Garofano, C. M. (2004). An integrated model of training evaluation and effectiveness. Human resource development Review,3(4), 385-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534484304270820
 Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, W. J. (2002). Goal orientation and ability: Interactive effects on self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.497
 Bhatti, M. A., & Kaur, S. (2010). The role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Journal of European industrial training, 34(7), 656-672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090591011070770
 Brusso, R. C., Orvis, K. A., Bauer, K. N., & Tekleab, A. G. (2012). Interaction among self-efficacy, goal orientation, and unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance. Military Psychology, 24(1), 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2012.639669
 Peck, A. C., & Detweiler, M. C. (2000). Training concurrent multistep procedural tasks. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 42(3), 379-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/001872000779698150
 Richman‐Hirsch, W. L. (2001). Posttraining interventions to enhance transfer: The moderating effects of work environments. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(2), 105-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.2.abs
 Tai, W. T. (2006). Effects of training framing, general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees' training effectiveness. Personnel Review, 35(1), 51-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483480610636786
 Orvis, K. A., Horn, D. B., & Belanich, J. (2009). An Examination of the Role Individual Differences Play in Videogame–Based Training. Military Psychology,21(4), 461-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995600903206412
 Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Bedwell, W., Lazzara, E., & Salas, E. (2010, September). Game-based learning: The impact of flow state and videogame self-efficacy. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 54, No. 28, pp. 2398-2402). SAGE Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/154193121005402808
 Orvis, K. A., Horn, D. B., & Belanich, J. (2008). The roles of task difficulty and prior videogame experience on performance and motivation in instructional videogames. Computers in Human behavior, 24(5), 2415-2433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.02.016
 Brown, E., (2006) Discussion Board or Discussion Bored, 7th UCLT Conference Anglia Ruskin University.
 Ho, L. A., & Kuo, T. H. (2010). How can one amplify the effect of e-learning? An examination of high-tech employees’ computer attitude and flow experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(1), 23-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.07.007
 Johnson, R. D., Hornik, S., & Salas, E. (2008). An empirical examination of factors contributing to the creation of successful e-learning environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(5), 356-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.11.003
 Martocchio, J. J. (1992). Microcomputer usage as an opportunity: The influence of context in employee training. Personnel Psychology, 45(3), 529-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00859.x
 Pavlas, D. (2010). A model of flow and play in game-based learning: The impact of game characteristics, player traits, and player states (Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida).
 Noe, R. A., & Schmitt, N. (1986). The influence of trainee attitudes on training effectiveness: Test of a model. Personnel psychology, 39(3), 497-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00950.x
 Dubin, S. S. (1990). Maintaining competence through updating.
 Farr, J. L., & Middlebrooks, C. L. (1990). Enhancing motivation to participate in professional development.
 Noe, R. A., & Ford, J. K. (1992). Emerging issues and new directions for training research. Research in personnel and human resources management,10, 345-384.
 Salas, E., Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Rhodenizer, L., & Bowers, C. A. (1999). Training in organizations: Myths, misconceptions, and mistaken assumptions. Research in personnel and human resources management, 17, 123-162.
 Rowold, J. (2007). Individual influences on knowledge acquisition in a call center training context in Germany. International Journal of Training and Development,11(1), 21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2007.00267.x
 Martineau, J. W. (1996). A contextual examination of the effectiveness of a supervisory skills training program (Doctoral dissertation, ProQuest Information & Learning).
 Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Mathieu, J. E. (1995). Toward theoretically based principles of training effectiveness: A model and initial empirical investigation. Military Psychology, 7(3), 141-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327876mp0703_1
 Hansen, T. (2001). A study examining the factors affecting training motivation. Doctoral Dissertation, Bowling Green State University at Ohio, USA.
 Nease, A. A. (2000). Do motives matter? An examination of reasons for attending training and their influence on training effectiveness. Dissertation Abstracts International.
 Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Jentsch, F. G., Payne, S. C., & Salas, E. (1996). Can pretraining experiences explain individual differences in learning?. Journal of applied Psychology, 81(1), 110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.1.110
 Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., & Baker, D. P. (1996). Training Team Performance-Related Assertiveness. Personnel Psychology, 49(4), 909-936. ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb02454.x
 Tharenou, P. (2001). The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(5), 599-621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317901167541
 Switzer, K. C., Nagy, M. S., & Mullins, M. E. (2005). The influence of training reputation, managerial support, and self-efficacy on pre-training motivation and perceived training transfer. Applied HRM Research, 10(1), 21-34.
 Sitzmann, T., Brown, K. G., Ely, K., Kraiger, K., & Wisher, R. A. (2009). A Cyclical Model of Motivational Constructs in Web-Based Courses. Military Psychology, 21(4), 534-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995600903206479
 Tannenbaum, S. I., Mathieu, J. E., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1991). Meeting trainees' expectations: The influence of training fulfillment on the development of commitment, self-efficacy, and motivation. Journal of applied psychology, 76(6), 759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.759
 Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Bowers, C. A. (2009). Synthetic learning environments: On developing a science of simulation, games and virtual worlds for training. In S. W. J. Kozlowski & E. Salas (Eds.), Learning, training, and development in organizations (pp. 229-261). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
 Chiou, G. F. (1995). Beliefs and Computer-Based Learning. Educational Technology, 35(3), 48-52
 Hunt, N. P., & Bohlin, R. M. (1991). Entry Attitudes of Students towards Using Computers.
 Garland, K. J., & Noyes, J. M. (2004). Computer experience: a poor predictor of computer attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 20(6), 823-840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2003.11.010
 Coates, H. (2007). A model of online and general campus-based student engagement. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(2), 121-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602930600801878
 Schoenau-Fog, H. (2011). The player engagement process–An exploration of continuation desire in digital games. In Think Design Play: Digital Games Research Conference.
 Brown, E., & Cairns, P. (2004, April). A grounded investigation of game immersion. In CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1297-1300). ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/985921.986048
 Jennett, C., Cox, A. L., Cairns, P., Dhoparee, S., Epps, A., Tijs, T., & Walton, A. (2008). Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games.International journal of human-computer studies, 66(9), 641-661.
 Rigby, S., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Glued to Games: How Video Games Draw Us In and Hold Us Spellbound: How Video Games Draw Us In and Hold Us Spellbound. ABC-CLIO.
 Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE bulletin, 3, 7.
 Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2004). Student engagement and student learning: Insights from a construct validation study. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
 Agarwal, R., & Karahanna, E. (2000). Time flies when you're having fun: Cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS quarterly, 665-694.
 Yi, M. Y., & Hwang, Y. (2003). Predicting the use of web-based information systems: Self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(4), 431–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00114-9
 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding Flow. New York: Basic Books.
 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row
 Murphy, C., Chertoff, D., Guerrero, M., & Moffitt, K. (2012). Creating Flow, Motivation, & Fun in Learning Games.
 Murphy, C. (2011). Why games work and the science of learning. In Interservice, Interagency Training, Simulations, and Education Conference.
 Chen, J. (2007). Flow in games (and everything else). Communications of the ACM, 50(4), 31-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1232743.1232769
 Bizzocchi, J., & Paras, B. (2005). Game, motivation, and effective learning: An integrated model for educational game design.
 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
 Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
 Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 347–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8
 Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
 Lusczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. The Journal of psychology, 139(5), 439-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.139.5.439-457
 Brockmyer, J. H., Fox, C. M., Curtiss, K. A., McBroom, E., Burkhart, K. M., & Pidruzny, J. N. (2009). The development of the Game Engagement Questionnaire: A measure of engagement in video game-playing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 624-634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.016
 Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
IJSG copyright information is provided here.