Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

Konstantinos Chorianopoulos, Michail Giannakos

Abstract


There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.


Keywords


Design Principles; Education; Guidelines; Mathematics; Interaction Design; Serious Video Games

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arnab, S., Lim, T., Carvalho, M. B., Bellotti, F., de Freitas, S., Louchart, S., Suttie, N., Berta, R. and De Gloria, A., “Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis”. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12113, 2014

Becker, K., “Teaching with games: the Minesweeper and Asteroids experience. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 17(2), 23-33, 2001.

Bellotti, F., Berta, R. & De Gloria, A., “Designing effective serious games: opportunities and challenges for research”. Special issue: creative learning with serious games. Int’l Journal of Emerging Technologies In Learning (IJET), 5, 22–35, 2010.

Bellotti, F., R. Berta, A. De Gloria, S. Arnab, S. de Freitas, K. Kiili, M. Ott. Designing Serious Games for education: from Pedagogical principles to Game Mechanisms. Proceedings of ECGBL Conference, Athens, 2011.

Bopp, M. Storytelling as a motivational tool in digital learning games. Didactics of Microlearning. Concepts, Discourses and Examples, 250-266, 2007.

Campbell, J., The hero's journey: Joseph Campbell on his life and work (Vol. 7). New World Library, 2003.

Crawford, C. The Art of Computer Game Design, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 1984.

Dondlinger, M. J., Educational video game design: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1), 21-31, 2007.

Duke, R. D., Gaming: the future's language. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1974.

Garneli, B., Giannakos, M. N., Chorianopoulos, K., & Jaccheri, L. Learning by Playing and Learning by Making. In Serious Games Development and Applications (pp. 76-85). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40790-1_8

Gee, J. P. Deep learning properties of good digital games: How far can they go. Serious games: Mechanisms and effects, 67-82, 2009.

Gunter, G. A., Kenny, R. F. & Vick, E. H. A case for a formal design paradigm for serious games. The Journal of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, 3, 1, 93–105, 2006.

Huynh-Kim-Bang, B., Labat, L.-M. & Wisdom, J., Design patterns in serious games: a blue print for combining fun and learning, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2014, from http://seriousgames.lip6.fr/DesignPatterns/designPatternsForSeriousGames.pdf.

Jeong, H. & Chi, M. T. H., Does collaborative learning lead to the construction of common knowledge?, 2000. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www.ircs.upenn.edu.edu/cogsci2000/PRCDNGS/SPRCDNGS/posters/jeo_chi.pdf

Johnson, S., Everything bad is good for you: How today’s popular culture is actually making us smarter. London: Allen Lane, 2005.

Kafai, Y. B., Playing and making games for learning instructionist and constructionist perspectives for game studies. Games and culture, 1(1), 36-40, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1555412005281767

Kelle, S., Klemke, R. and Specht, M., ‘Design patterns for learning games’, Int. J. Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(6), 555–569, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2011.045452

Kelleher, C., Pausch, R., & Kiesler, S. Storytelling alice motivates middle school girls to learn computer programming. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM, 1455-1464, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1240624.1240844

Kiili, K., Ott, M., Jönkkäri. T (2012) Towards creative pedagogy: Empowering students to develop games. In proceedings of ECGBL, 2012.

Kirschner, P., Strijbos, J. W., Kreijns, K., & Beers, P. J., Designing electronic collaborative learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(3), 47-66, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504675

Lim, T., Louchart, S., Suttie, N., Ritchie, J. M., Aylett, R. S., Stănescu, I. A. et al. Strategies for effective digital games development and implementation. In Y. Baek & N. Whitton (Eds), Cases on digital game-based learning: methods, models, and strategies, IGI global, 168–198, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2848-9.ch010

Malone, T.W., Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science 4, 333–369, 1981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0504_2

Owen, M., Structure and discourse in a telematic learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 2000. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://ifets.ieee.otg/periodical/vol_3-2000/b04.html

Rieber, L. P.. Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games. Educational technology research and development, 44(2), 43-58, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02300540

Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., and Vorderer, P. Eds., Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2009.

Rodrigues, M., & Carvalho, P. S., Teaching physics with Angry Birds: exploring the kinematics and dynamics of the game. Physics Education, 48(4), 431-437, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9120/48/4/431

Schaffer, D., Squire, K., Halverson, R., & Gee, J., Video Games and the Future of Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(2), 105–111, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170508700205

Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. E. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century. interactions, 1(2), 36-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/174809.174813

Spalter, A. M., Simpson, R. M., Legrand, M., & Taichi, S., Considering a full range of teaching techniques for use in interactive educational software: a practical guide and brainstorming session. In Proceedings of IEEE/ASEE Frontiers in Education (FIE), 1-19, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/fie.2000.896622

Steinkuehler, C., & Duncan, S., Scientific habits of mind in virtual worlds. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 530–543, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10956-008-9120-8

Virvou, M., & Katsionis, G., On the usability and likeability of virtual reality games for education: The case of VR-ENGAGE. Computers & Education, 50(1), 154-178, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2006.04.004

Vogler, C., The writer’s journey: Mythic structures for writers. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions, 1998.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v1i3.12

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Serious Games Society


Creative Commons LicenseThe International Journal of Serious Games (IJSG) by Serious Games Society is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.