A Model-driven Framework for Educational Game Design
Educational games are a class of serious games whose main purpose is to teach some subject to their players. Despite the many existing design frameworks, these games are too often created in an ad-hoc manner, and typically without the use of a game design document (GDD). We argue that a reason for this phenomenon is that current ways to structure, create and update GDDs do not increase the value of the artifact in the design and development process. As a solution, we propose a model-driven, web-based knowledge management environment that supports game designers in the creation of a GDD that accounts for and relates educational and entertainment game elements. The foundation of our approach is our devised conceptual model for educational games, which also defines the structure of the design environment. We present promising results from an evaluation of our environment with eight experts in serious games.
 Takahashi D., “With a mobile boom, learning games are a $1.5B market headed toward $2.3B by 2017 (exclusive) | GamesBeat | Games | by Dean Takahashi,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://venturebeat.com/2013/08/16/with-a-mobile-boom-learning-games-are-a-1-5b-market-headed-toward-2-3b-by-2017-exclusive/. [Accessed: 03-Jun-2015].
 Marfisi-Schottman I., George S., and Tarpin-Bernard F., “Tools and methods for efficiently designing serious games,” in Proceedings of the 4th Europeen Conference on Games Based Learning ECGBL, 2010, pp. 226–234.
 Sundström Y., “Game design and production: frequent problems in game development.” 2013.
 Brown D. M., Communicating design: Developing web site documentation for design and planning, vol. 39, no. 1. 2010.
 Bethke E., Game development and production. Wordware Publishing, Inc., 2003.
 Wand Y., Storey V. and Weber R., “An ontological analysis of the relationship construct in conceptual modeling,” ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 494–528, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/331983.331989
 Rousseau, Emile, ou de l’éducation, introduction et annotation conceptuelle par André Charrak, Paris, Flammarion, 2009.
 Piaget J., “Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning,” J. Res. Sci. Teach., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 176–186, 1964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660020306
 Vygotsky L., The Collected Works of LS Vygotsky: Problems of the theory and history of psychology. Springer Science & Business Media, 1997.
 Csikszentmihalyi M., Rathunde K., and Whalen S., Talented teenagers: The roots of success and failure. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 Whitaker D. and Graham C., “Neighborhood & family effects on learning motivation among urban African American middle school youth,” J. Child Fam. Stud., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 131–138, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9456-1
 Ormrod J., “How motivation affects learning and behavior,” 2010.
 Csikszentmihalyi M., Flow: The psychology of optimal experience, vol. 41. HarperPerennial New York, 1991.
 Mace C., The psychology of study. Penguin, 1968.
 Chance P., Learning and behavior. Nelson Education, 2013.
 Durkheim E., “The division of labor in society,” J. des Econ., p. 211, 1884.
 Jung C. G, “The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious,” Twent. Century Crit. Major Statements, ed. William J. Handy Max West-brook (New Delhi, Light Life Publ. 1974), p. 205, 1974.
 Aristotle, Poetics, in “The basic works of Aristotle”, edited by Richard McKeon, New York: Random House, 1941.
 Malone T. W., “What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for designing instructional computer games,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSMALL symposium and the first SIGPC symposium on Small systems, 1980, pp. 162–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/800088.802839
 Garris R., Ahlers R., and Driskell J. E., “Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model,” Simul. Gaming, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 441–467, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878102238607
 Salen K. and Zimmerman E., Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. MIT press, 2004.
 Baldwin M., “Game design document outline,” 2005. [Online]. Available: http://ddijogos.xpg.uol.com.br/Baldwin_Game_Design_Document_Template.pdf. [Accessed: 04-Jun-2015].
 Winn B., “The design, play, and experience framework,” Handb. Res. Eff. Electron. gaming Educ., vol. 3, pp. 1010–1024, 2008.
 Hunicke R., LeBlanc M., and Zubek R., “MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research,” in Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI, 2004, vol. 4.
 Mitgutsch K. and Alvarado N., “Purposeful by design?: a serious game design assessment framework,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, 2012, pp. 121–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2282338.2282364
 Amory A. and Naicker K., “The use of computer games as an educational tool: Identification of appropriate game types and game elements,” Br. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 311–321, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00121
 Aleven V., Myers E., Easterday M., and Ogan A., “Toward a framework for the analysis and design of educational games,” in Proceedigns of the IEEE International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL), 2010, pp. 69–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/digitel.2010.55
 Callele D., “Requirements engineering and the creative process in the video game industry,” in Proceedings. 13th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RE.2005.58
 Callele D., “Emotional requirements in video games,” in 14th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RE.2006.19
 Draper S., “Analysing fun as a candidate software requirement,” Pers. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 117–122, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01305336
 Greer M. and Levine E., “Enhancing creative performance in college students,” J. Creat. Behav., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1991.tb01377.x
 Nijholt A., Bos D. P.-O., and Reuderink B., “Turning shortcomings into challenges: Brain--computer interfaces for games,” Entertain. Comput., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 85–94, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcom.2009.09.007
 Juul J., “Without a goal: on open and expressive games,” Videogame, Play. text, pp. 191–203, 2007.
 Vockell E., “Educational psychology: A practical approach,” Purdue Univ. Calumet, on-line B., 2004.
 Hawkes M., “Effects of task repetition on learner motivation,” in JALT2009 Conference Proceedings, 2009.
 “Dialogue.” Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.). 2010. Oxford University Press.
 Yamada M., Fujisawa N., and Komori S., “The effect of music on the performance and impression in a video racing game,” J. Music Percept. Cogn., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 65–76, 2001.
 Ju E. and Wagner C., “Personal computer adventure games: Their structure, principles, and applicability for training,” ACM SIGMIS Database, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 78–92, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/264701.264707
 Asgari M. and Kaufman D., “Relationships among computer games, fantasy, and learning,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Imagination and Education, 2004.
 Harter S., “A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components.,” Dev. Psychol., vol. 17, no. 3, p. 300, 1981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.520
 Ermi L and Mäyrä F., “Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion,” Worlds Play Int. Perspect. Digit. games Res., vol. 37, 2005.
 McKeon R. and Levinson J., “Poetics. The Basic Works of Aristotle.” Random House New York, 1941.
 Maslow A., “A theory of human motivation,” Psychol. Rev., vol. 50, no. 4, p. 370, 1943. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054346
 Piage J. t, “Cognitive development in children: The Piaget papers,” in Piaget rediscovered: a report of the conference on cognitive studies and curriculum development, 1964, pp. 6–48.
 Guthrie E., The psychology of learning. 1952.
 Schmidt D. C., “Guest editor’s introduction: Model-driven engineering,” Computer (Long. Beach. Calif)., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 25–31, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mc.2006.58
 Meredith R., “Creative freedom and decision support systems,” in Creativity and Innovation in Decision Making and Decision Support, 2006, pp. 30–46.
 Nielsen J., “Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1994, pp. 152–158.
 Lewis J. R. and Sauro J., “The factor structure of the system usability scale,” in Human Centered Design, Springer, 2009, pp. 94–103.
 Palmer J. W., “Web site usability, design, and performance metrics,” Inf. Syst. Res., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 151–167, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/isre.184.108.40.206
 Koohang A., “Expanding the concept of usability,” Informing Sci., vol. 7, pp. 129–141, 2004.
 Wohlin C., Runeson P., Höst M., Ohlsson M. C., Regnell B., and Wesslén A., Experimentation in software engineering. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29044-2
 Robson C., Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers, vol. 2. Blackwell Oxford, 2002.
 Lethbridge T., Sim S., and Singer J., “Studying software engineers: Data collection techniques for software field studies,” Empir. Softw. Eng., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 311–341, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10664-005-1290-x
 Arnab S., Lim T., and Carvalho M., “Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis,” Br. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 391–411, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12113
 Carvalho M., Bellotti F., and Berta R., “An activity theory-based model for serious games analysis and conceptual design,” Comput. Educ., vol. 87, pp. 166–181, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.023