Learning Analytics Architecture to Scaffold Learning Experience through Technology-based Methods
Keywords:Serious games, learning analytics, game mechanics, scaffolded learning
The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is often increased by the size of classrooms and online learning communities. Serious Games (SGs) are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education. However, the issues related to their development and their level of effectiveness can be seriously affected when brought too rapidly into growing online learning communities. Deeper insights into how the students are playing is needed to deliver a comprehensive and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners' knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper discusses current SOTA and aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model (ecosystem and architecture) discussed in this paper aims to highlight the key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and SGs, by leveraging SGs as an suitable medium for gathering data and performing adaptations.
Silva, E., Measuring Skills for 21st-Century learning. The Phi Delta Kappan. 90(9), 630-634, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170909000905
Ananiadou & Claro, 21st Century Skills and Competencies for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries, 2009. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/21st-century-skills-and-competences-for-new-millennium-learners-in-oecd-countries_218525261154 [Last accessed 16 March 2013].
Dede, C., Comparing frameworks for 21st Century Skills, 2009. Available at: http://dca1to1.pbworks.com/f/21st+Century+-+will+our+students+be+prepared.pdf [Last Accessed 15 March 2013].
Eurydice, Eurydice Report- Developing Key Competencies at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy, 2012. Available at: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/145EN.pdf [Last accessed 17 March 2013].
Vygotsky, L. S., Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes (M. Cole, V.John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Soubeman, Eds.). Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, 1978.
Wood, D., Brunet; J. & Ross, G., The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychologyand Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 17, 89-100, 1976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x
Kolb, D.A., Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984.
Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E & Ecclestone, K., Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review, LSRC reference, Learning & Skills Research Centre, London, 2004.
Duval. E., Learning Analytics for Visualisation and Recommendation, in Proceedings of LAK11: 1st International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, 2011.
Fournier, H., Kop, R, Hanan, S., The Value of Learning Analytics to Networked Learning on a Personal Learning Environment, 2011, Available from: http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/npsi/ctrl?action=rtdoc&an=18150452&lang=en [Last accessed 8 September 2013]. Publications Archive Canada. Canada.
Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Vuorikari, R., Hummel, H. & Koper, R., Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning, in Recommender Systems Handbook, F. Ricci, Rokach, L, Shapira, B, Kantor, P, Ed., ed: Springer, US, pp. 387-415, 2011.
Brusilovsky, P. and Millán, E., User models for adaptive hypermedia and adaptive educational systems. In: P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa and W. Neidl (eds.): The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4321, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 3-53, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-72079-9
Heilman, M., Collins-Thompson, K., Callan, J., Eskenazi, M., Classroom success of an Intelligent Tutoring System for lexical practice and reading comprehension. Proceedings of Interspeech 2006. Pittsburgh, U.S.A, 2006.
Siemens, G., Learning Analytics: Envisioning a Research Discipline and a Domain of Practice, in Learning Analytics and Knowledge 2012, Vancouver, Canada, 2012.
Ali, L., Hatala, M., Gašević, D. & Jovanović, E., A qualitative evaluation of evolution of a learning analytics tool. Computers & Education 58(1), 470-489, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.030
Dawson, S., Bakharia, A., & Heathcate, E., SNAPP: Realising the affordance of real-time SNA within networked learning. In proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 125-133, 2012.
Buckingham Shum, S. & Ferguson, R., Social Learning Analytics. Educational Technology & Society 15(3), 3-26, 2012.
http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2013-horizon-report-HE.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2013]
Downes, S., Dell Cloud Services: Collaboration, Analytics and the LMS: A Conversation with Stephen Downes, 2010, Available at: http://campustechnology.com/newsletters/ctfocus/2010/10/collaboration_analytics_and-the-lms_a-conversation-with-stephen-downes.aspx2010.[Last accessed 9 Sept 2013].
Kop, R., The Design and Development of a Personal Learning Environment: Researching the learning experience. Presented at the European Distance and E-Learning Network, Valencia, Spain, 2010.
Peters, V. a. M. & Vissers, G. a. N., A Simple Classification Model for Debriefing Simulation Games. Simulation & Gaming 35(1), 70–84, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878103253719
Arnab, S., Brown, K., Clarke, S., Dunwell, I., Lim, T., Suttie, N., Louchart, S., Hendrix, M. & de Freitas, S., The Development Approach of a Pedagogically-Driven Serious Game to support Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) within a classroom setting. Computers & Education 69, 15-30, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.06.013
Serrano-Laguna, A., Torrente, J., Moreno-Ger, P., Fernàndez-Manjòn, B., Application of Learning Analytics in educational videogames. Entertainment Computing. Vol. 5 (4), pp. 313-322, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2014.02.003.
Baalsrud Hauge, J, Berta, R, Fiucci, G., Manjon,B.F., Padron-Napoles,C.L., Westra, W. Nadolski, R. "Implications of Learning Analytics for Serious Game Design",ICALT, 2014, IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), pp. 230-232, 2014, doi:10.1109/ICALT.2014.73
Shute, V. J., Stealth Assessment in Computer-Based Games to Support Learning. In S. Tobias & J. D. Fletcher (Eds.), Computer Games and Instruction. Information Age Publishers, pp. 503–523, 2011.
Bellotti, F., Kapralos,B., Lee,K. and Moreno-Ger, P.“User Assessment in Serious Games and Technology-Enhanced Learning,” Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 2013, Article ID 120791, 2 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/120791
Ketamo, H. & Kiili, K., Conceptual change takes time: Game based learning cannot be only supplementary amusement. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia19(4), 399-419, 2010.
Bienkowski, M., Feng, M. & Means, B., Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics. An Issue Brief. U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology, 2012.
Serrano-Laguna, Á., Marchiori E. J. et al., A framework to improve evaluation in educational games. In Proceedings Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), Marrakesh, Morocco, 2011.
Moreno-Ger, P., Manjón, B. F, Laguna, A. S., Ortiz, I. M., Kiilli, K., Ninaus, M., Kober, S. E., Wood, G., Neuper, C., Berta, R., van Oostendorp, H., Wouters, P., Veltkamp, R., Arnab, S., Imiruaye, O., Dunwell, I. & Liarakopis, F., D2.3 Priority Area 1 Report, WP2 Research and Development, Games and Learning Alliance (GALA), 2013.
Serrano-Laguna, A., GLAS: a framework to improve assesment in educational videogames (Master Thesis). Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2012, Obtained from UCM e-Prints: http://eprints.ucm.es/16929/
Arnab, S., Moreno-Ger, P., Lim, T., Ott, M., Stanescu, I., Kiili, K., Perttula A., Earp, J., Ninaus M., Louchart, M., Jessel, J.P., Orliac, C., WP2 Synthesis and Summary report. Deliverable n. 2.4, 2014, online: http://www.galanoe.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=700&Itemid=182&dir=JSROOT%5CDeliverables%5CYear+4\DEL_WP2+%2B+TC+Reports
Lameras, P., Levy, P, Paraskakis, I, Webber, S,. "Blended university teaching using virtual learning environments: conceptions and approaches." Instructional Science 40(1): 141-157, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11251-011-9170-9
Suttie, N., Louchart, S., Lim, T., Macvean, A., Westera, W., Brown, D., Djaouti, D., Introducing the “Serious Games Mechanics” A Theoretical Framework to Analyse Relationships Between “Game” and “Pedagogical Aspects” of Serious Games, Procedia Computer Science, 15: 314-315, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.091
Lim, T., Louchart, S., Suttie, N., Ritchie, J., Aylett, R., Stanescu, I. A., Roceanu, I., Martinez-Ortiz, I., & Moreno-Ger, P., Strategies for Effective Digital Games Development and Implementation. In Y. Baek, & N. Whitton (Eds.), Cases on Digital Game-Based Learning: Methods, Models, and Strategies (pp. 168-198). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013.
Lim, T., Louchart, S. & Suttie, N., D2.2 TC2.1 Serious Games Mechanics Report, WP2 Research and Development, Games and Learning Alliance (GALA), 2012.
Arnab, S., Lim, T., Carvalho, M. B., Bellotti, F., de Freitas, S., Louchart S., Suttie, N., Berta R., De Gloria, A. (in press). Mapping Learning and Game Mechanics for Serious Games Analysis, British Journal of Educational Technology, 5 JAN 2014, DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12113.
Lim, T., Louchart, S., Suttie, N., Baalsrud Hauge, J., Stanescu, I. A., Ortiz, I. M., Moreno-Ger, P., Bellotti, F., Carvalho, M.B., Earp, J., Ott, M., Arnab, S., & Berta, R., Narrative Serious Game Mechanics (NSGM)–Insights into the Narrative-Pedagogical Mechanism. In Games for Training, Education, Health and Sports (pp. 23-34). Springer International Publishing, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2848-9.ch010
Baalsrud Hauge, J. M., Stanescu, I.A., Carvalho, M. B., Lim, T., Louchart, S., Arnab, S., Stefan, A., Serious Game Mechanics and Opportunities for Reuse. In proceedings of the 11th International Scientific Conference eLearning and software for Education (eLSE 2015), Bucharest, Romania (accepted paper), 2015.
Ketamo, H., Balancing adaptive content with agents: Modeling and reproducing group behavior as computational system. In proceedings of 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, WEBIST 2010, Valencia, Spain, 1, pp. 291-296, 2010.
41. Ketamo, H., Alajääski, J. & Kiili, K., Self-Organizing Learning Material on Teacher Education. In Proceedings of EdMedia, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 3658-3667, 2009.
Ketamo, H., Managing Information Overload - Teachable Media Agents. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning – ICICKM 2011. Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 301-308, 2011.
Thomas, J.J. & Cook, K.A., Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. National Visualization and Analytics Ctr. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alametos, CA, 2005.
Gómez Aguilar, D. A., Suárez Guerrero, C., Therón, R. & García Peñalvo, F., Visual analytics to support e-learning In Ed. Mary Beth Rosson (pp. 207-228) IN-TECH: Advances in Learning Processes, 2010.
Mazza, R. & Dimitrova, V., Generation of graphical representations of student tracking data in course management systems. 9th International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 253-258, 2005.
Bellotti, F., Berta, R., De Gloria, A., D'Ursi, A. and Fiore, V., A serious game model for cultural heritage. ACM J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 5, 4, 2012.
Stanescu I.A., Stanescu, A.M., Moisescu, M., Sacala, I.S., Stefan, A. Baalsrud Hauge, J., Enabling Interoperability Between Serious Game and Virtual Engineering Ecosystems. Proceedings of the VES: Game Eco-Systems in Engineering, 34th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (CIE), ASME 2014 International Design and Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE 2014), August 17-20, 2014 in Buffalo, NY.
Arnab, S., Hobby to habits. Public Service Review: Health and Social Care 35, 105-105, 2013.
Lameras, P., Petridis, P, Dunwell, I, Hendrix, M, Arnab, S, de Freitas, S, Stewart, C., A Game-based Approach for Raising Awareness on Sustainability Issues in Public Spaces. The Spring Servitization Conference: Servitization in the multi-organisation enterprise 20-21 May 2013 Aston Business School Birmigham, UK, 2013.
Ketamo, H., Sharing Behaviors in Games and Social Media. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Informatics 5(1), 224-232, 2011.
Leonidis, A., Margetis, G., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C., ClassMATE: Enabling Ambient Intelligence in the Classroom. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 66, pp. 594 – 598, 2010.
How to Cite
IJSG copyright information is provided here.