State-of-the-art in Business Games
The use of digital games and gamification has demonstrated potential to improve many aspects of how businesses provide training to staff, and communicate with consumers. However, there is still a need for better understanding of how the adoption of games and gasification would influence the process of decision-making in organisations across different industry. This article provides a structured review of existing literature on the use of games in the business environment, and seeks to consolidate findings to address research questions regarding their perception, proven efficacy, and identifies key areas for future work. The findings highlight that serious games can have positive and effective impacts in multiple areas of a business, including training, decision-support, and consumer outreach. They also emphasise the challenges and pitfalls of applying serious games and gamification principles within a business context, and discuss the implications of development and evaluation methodologies on the success of a game-based solution.
Cook, W., Five Reasons You can't Ignore Gamification. Chief Learning Officer 2013. 12(5): p. 46-55.
Werbach, K., and Hunter, D., For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. 2012: Wharton Digital Press.
Zichermann, G.L., J., Game-Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty Through Rewards, Challenges, and Contests. 2010: Wiley.
Hugos, M., Enterprise Games: Using Game Mechanics to Build a Better Business, . 2012,: O'Reilly.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: Enjoyment and Intrinsic Motivation. 1975, London (United Kingdom): Jossey-Bass Inc.
Mainemelis, C., When the muse takes it all: A model for the experience of timelessness in organizations, Academy of Management Review, 2001, 26, p. 548-565. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3560241
Bedwell, W.L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H. & Salas, E., Toward a Taxonomy Linking Game Attributes to Learning: An Empirical Study, Simulation and Gaming, 2012, 43, p. 729-760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878112439444
Deci, E.L.R., R. M., Handbook of Self-determination Research,. University of Rochester's Press., 2004.
Pink, D.H., Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us, Canongate, 2010.
Shelton, T., Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud: Transform Your Business Using Social Media, Mobile Internet, and Cloud Computing, 2013: John Wiley & Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118555910
Edery, D.M., E., Changing the Game: How Video Games Are Transforming the Future of Business, 2008: FT Press.
Zyda, M., From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. IEEE Computer, 2005.
Bogost, I., Procedural Retorics' in Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames., ed. Anon. 2007. 1-64.
Deterding, S., Khaled, R., et al. , Gamification: Towards a Definition. CHI, 2011.
McGonigal, J., Reality is Broken: Why Games make Us Better and how they can Change the World. 2011, New York,: The Penguin Press.
Gee, J.P., What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. 2003: New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zhang, P., Motivational Affordances: Reasons for ICT Design and use. Communications of the ACM, 2008. 51(11): p. 145-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1400214.1400244
von Ahn, L., Dabbish, L., Designing Games with a Purpose. Communications of the ACM, 2008. 51(8): p. 58-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1378704.1378719
Sánchez, J., and Olivares, R.. Problem Solving and Collaboration using Mobile Serious Games'. Computers & Education 2011. 57(3): p. 1943-1952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.04.012
Maslow, A.H., Motivation and Personality. 1954, New York,: Harper and Row.
Reeves, B., and Read, J. L.,, Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. 2009, MA: Boston,: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Nicholson, S., A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification, in games+learning+society 8.0.2012: Madison, USA.
Burke, J., et al., Optimising engagement for stroke rehabilitation using serious games. The Visual Computer, 2009. 25(12): p. 1085-1099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00371-009-0387-4
Deterding, S., Gamification: designing for motivation. interactions, 2012. 19(4): p. 14-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2212877.2212883
Thom, J., Millen D., and DiMicco, J., Removing Gamification from an Enterprise SNS, in CSCW '12 Proceedings of the ACM 2012 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. 2012: Washington, USA.
Petridis, P., et al., An Engine Selection Methodology for High Fidelity Serious Games, in Proceedings of the 2010 Second International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2010, IEEE Computer Society. p. 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VS-GAMES.2010.26
Ryan, R., Rigby, C., and Przybylski, A., The Motivational Pull of Video Games: A Self-Determination Theory Approach'. Motivation and Emotion 2006. 30 (2006): p. 347-363.
Bogost, I., ed. Persuasive Games - the expressive power of videogames. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 2007.
Jarvis, S., de Freitas, S., Evaluation of an Immersive Learning Programme to support Triage Training, in Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE Computer Society,2009: Coventry, UK. p. 117-122.
Mansour, S. and M. El-Said, Multi-players role-playing educational serious games: A link between fun and learning. The International Journal of Learning, 2008. 15 (11): p. 229-240.
mmo News. M's CityOne: This is a Serious Game for Environment Protection. 2012 [18/05/2012]; Available from: http://news.mmosite.com/content/2010-05-04/ibm_s_cityone_this_is_a_serious_game_for_environment_protection.shtml.
Brownhill, I., Does gaming have a role to play in employee engagement? Strategic HR Review 12.1, 2012. 7(7).
Arnab, S., Brown,K., Clarke,S., Dunwell,I., Lim,T., Suttie,N., Louchart,S., Hendrix,M., de Freitas,S.,, The Development Approach of a Pedagogically-Driven Serious Game to support Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) within a classroom setting. Computers & Education, 2013. 69, p. 15-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.06.013
Dunwell, I., Petridis, P., Arnab, S., Protopsaltis, A., Hendrix, M., de Freitas, S., Blended Game-Based Learning Environments: Extending a Serious Game into a Learning Content Management System, in ALICE 2011: International Workshop on Adaptive Learning via Interactive, Collaborative and Emotional approaches, at INCOS 2011: Third International Conference on Networking and Collaborative Systems 2011.
Baalsrud Hauge, J., et al., Implications of learning analytics for serious game design. 2014.
Malone, T.W., Lepper, M. R., Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning, in In Aptitude, learning and instruction: III. Conative and affective process analyses, F.J. Snow R. E., Editor 1987: Erlbaum. p. 223-253.
Isfe. 2010; Available from: http://www.isfe.eu/objects/education.
Dunwell, I., & Jarvis, S., A Serious Game for On-the-Ward Infection Control Awareness Training: Ward Off Infection, in erious Games for Healthcare: Applications and Implications, I.D. S. Arnab, & K. Debattista (Eds) ,2013, Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference, pp. 233-246.
Davis, F.D., Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 1989. 13(3): p. 319–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/249008
Boehm, B.W., A spiral model of software development and enhancement, in Software risk management, 1989, IEEE Press. p. 26-37.
Asuncion, H., et al., Serious game development as an iterative user-centered agile software project, in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering2011, ACM: Waikiki, Honolulu, HI, USA. p. 44-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1984674.1984690
Nadolski, R.J., et al., EMERGO: A methodology and toolkit for developing serious games in higher education. Simul. Gaming, 2008. 39 (3), p. 338-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878108319278
Kelle, S., et al., Standardization of game based learning design, in Proceedings of the 2011 international conference on Computational science and its applications - Volume Part IV2011, Springer-Verlag: Santander, Spain. p. 518-532.
Gamez, E.H.C., et al., Video games as research instruments, in Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems2010, ACM: Atlanta, Georgia, USA. p. 4493-4496.
Taylor, A.-S.A., et al., The Birth of Elinor: A Collaborative Development of a Game Based System for Stroke Rehabilitation, in Proceedings of the 2009 Second International Conference in Visualisation2009, IEEE Computer Society. p. 52-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VIZ.2009.19
Tran, M.Q. and R. Biddle, Collaboration in serious game development: a case study, in Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play: Research, Play, Share2008, ACM: Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p. 49-56.
Zyda, M., From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. IEEE computer, 2005. 38(9): p. 25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MC.2005.297
Dunwell, I. and S. Jarvis, A Serious Game for On-the-Ward Infection Control Awareness Training: Ward Off Infection, in Serious Games for Healthcare: Applications and Implications, S. Arnab, I. Dunwell, and K. Debattista, Editors. 2012, IGI Global.
Werneck, E. and M. Chang, Where Academics Meet the Real World: Difficulties Encountered When Conducting a Project for Designing a Game-Based Learning in a Company, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games: Learning by Playing. Game-based Education System Design and Development2009, Springer-Verlag: Banff, Alberta, Canada. p. 176-183.
Khaled, R. and G. Ingram, Tales from the front lines of a large-scale serious game project, in Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems2012, ACM: Austin, Texas, USA. p. 69-78.
De Freitas, S. and M. Oliver, A four dimensional framework for the evaluation and assessment of educational games, in Paper presented at the Computer Assisted Learning Conference 2005.
Fujiki, Y., et al., NEAT-o-Games: blending physical activity and fun in the daily routine. Comput. Entertain., 2008. 6(2): p. 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1371216.1371224
Mottola, L., A.L. Murphy, and G.P. Picco, Pervasive games in a mote-enabled virtual world using tuple space middleware, in Proceedings of 5th ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Network and system support for games2006, ACM: Singapore. p. 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1230040.1230098
Oja, M. and J. Riekki, Ubiquitous framework for creating and evaluating persuasive applications and games, in Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Grid and Pervasive Computing2012, Springer-Verlag: Oulu, Finland. p. 133-140.
Hildmann, H., A. Uhlemann, and D. Livingstone, Simple mobile phone based games to adjust the player's behaviour and social norms. Int. J. Mob. Learn. Organ., 2009. 3(3): p. 289-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJMLO.2009.026314
Anderson, E.F., McLoughlin, L., Liarokapis, F., Peters, C., Petridis, P., de Freitas,S,. Serious Games in Cultural Heritage. in 10th VAST International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST '09), VAST-STAR, Short and Project Proceedings, Eurographics. 2009. Malta, 22-25
Playgen. Make Games and Simulations with PlayGen. 2010 21/06//2010]; Available from: http://playgen.com/.
PIXELearning. Pixel Learning: Serious games and immersive simulation for learning and development. 2010 21/06/2010]; Available from: http://www.pixelearning.com/.
De Freitas, S., Liarokapis, F., Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Magoulas, G., Poulovassilis, A., Developing an evaluation methodology for immersive learning experiences in a virtual world, in Proceedings of 1st IEEE conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2009. pp. 43-50.
Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S., Beyond edutainment: exploring the educational potential of computer games, 2005, IT-University Copenhagen.
Mautone, T., Spiker, V., Karp, D., Using Serious Game Technology to Improve Aircrew Training, in In Proc. of I/ITSEC 20082008.
Robillard G., B.S., Fournier T., Renaud P., Anxiety and presence using VR immersion: a comparative study of the reactions of phobic and non-phobic participants in therapeutic virtual environments derived from computer games. CyberPsychol Behav, 2003. 6(5): p. 467-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109493103769710497
Akenine-Moller T., H., E., Hoffman, N., Real-Time Rendering. 2008, A. K. Peters. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10644
Kato, P.M., S. W. Cole, et al., Video Game Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics 2008. 122(2): p. 305-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3134
Knight, J.F., S. Carley, et al., Serious gaming technology in major incident triage training: a pragmatic controlled trial. Resuscitation 2010. 81(9): p. 1175-1179.
Powell, J., W. Robertson, et al., Development of a Serious Game for Childhood Obesity, in Poster presented at the Faculty of Public Health Conference, 2010.
Calvillo Gamez, E.H., P. Cairns, et al., Video games as research instruments, in Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. 2010. New York, NY, USA, ACM Press.
Pausch, R., D. Proffitt, et al., Quantifying immersion in virtual reality, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. 1997. CM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Norling, E., Agents for Games and Simulations. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2009. 5920: p. 155-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-11198-3_11
Cowley, B., D. Charles, et al., Toward an understanding of flow in video games. Computers in Entertainment, 2008. 6(2): p. 1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1371216.1371223
Sawyer, B., Serious games: Improving public policy through game-based learning and simulation. Whitepaer for the Woodrow WIlson INternational Center for Scholars, 2002.
Nacke, L., A. Drachen, et al.,, Methods for Evaluating Gameplay Experience in a Serious Gaming Context. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport 2009.
Sweetser, P.a.P.W., GameFlow: A Model for Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 2005. 3(3).
Bellotti, F., et al., Assessment in and of serious games: an overview. Adv. in Hum.-Comp. Int., 2013. 2013: p. 1-1.
Pinelle, D., Wong N., et al., Heuristic evaluation for games: usability principles for video game design. in Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. 2008. Florence, Italy, ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1357054.1357282
Gunter, G., R. F. Kenny, et al., A Case for Formal Design Paradigm for Serious Games, in CODE - Human Systems, Digital Bodies 2006.
GALA NoE, GALA Roadmap, Available from: http://www.seriousgamessociety.org/
IJSG copyright information is provided here.