Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Perceptions of Freedom of Choice in Digital Games


  • Sotiris Kirginas University of Athens
  • Dimitris Gouscos University of Athens



Digital Games, Freedom of Choice, Player Perceptions, Free-form Gameplay, Structured Gameplay, Questionnaire, Measurement, Validation, Adventure Games, Games for Learning


The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire using both the structural characteristics of digital games and students perceptions of the concept of freedom of choice in digital games, (b) to validate items to be used in questionnaire to measure perceived freedom of choice, (c) to identify the factors that underlie freedom of choice in digital games and (d) to generate a model to predict preferred freedom of choice in digital games from gender, age, familiarity with digital game and frequency of digital game use. The study consisted of four phases. First, 9 items were developed though a comprehensive literature review and a focus groups method. Second, the items were refined through three layers of review. Third, 290 primary school students rated the results of the reviews. Fourth, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed to analyze the data. The results of the Freedom of Choice (FoC) Questionnaire were statistically significant with a total of 9 items across two factors (exploratory freedom - outcome freedom). Furthermore, a model was constructed, based on a multiple regression, in order to predict preferred freedom of choice in digital games from different demographic characteristics of players. This work can be implemented in serious games; if serious games include the characteristics of free-form play can lead to more engaging and more free-form learning processes, which can better support innovative approaches to learning and, more generally, to the acquisition of 21st century transferable skills.This effort is contextualized within a broader research plan for using digital games (adventure games, in particular) as learning frameworks, with a view to ultimately taking stock of positive player experience drivers, such as freedom of choice, as enablers for better player/learner engagement and more effective learning. 

Author Biographies

Sotiris Kirginas, University of Athens

Sotiris Kirginas is a primary school teacher and doctoral researcher at the Laboratory of New Technologies in Communication, Education and the Mass Media of the Faculty of Communication & Media Studies, National University of Athens. He holds a Bachelor Degree in primary education and a Master Degree in ICT in Education from the National University of Athens. His research focuses on exploring the significance of digital games-based learning in education and how does it relate to enhancing the learning process.

Dimitris Gouscos, University of Athens

Dr. Dimitris Gouscos is Assistant Professor with the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies of the University of Athens, and a Research Fellow of the Laboratory of New Technologies in Communication, Education and the Mass Media. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Intl Journal of Electronic Governance and his research interests evolve around applications of social media, digital games and other interactive digital media to e-learning, e-participation and e-governance. More information available at


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How to Cite

Kirginas, S., & Gouscos, D. (2016). Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Perceptions of Freedom of Choice in Digital Games. International Journal of Serious Games, 3(2).