People with Disabilities Leading the Design of Serious Games and Virtual Worlds.
Keywords:Assistive technology, Serious Games, Virtual Worlds, Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Games and virtual worlds have many potential benefits for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in terms of training, education, and rehabilitation. However, because this population presents a wide range of specific needs and abilities, it can be difficult to design games which are engaging and present optimum levels of challenge to players. By including individuals with ID and ASD in the design phase we can help meet their specific needs and preferences by personalizing an intervention through the exploration of experimental techniques, methods and assistive technologies. By embracing the Responsible Research and Innovation approach, we bring science and society closer together to shape the world for future generations. A number of approaches for achieving such inclusion have been described, such as User Sensitive Inclusive Design, Universal Design, and Design for All. Here we discuss three specific examples of the design of games and virtual worlds for people with ID/ASD and illustrate how they attempt to meet their needs. Namely 1) a blended approach of computerised program and applied behaviour analysis for reading skills 2) immersive gameplay for employment and transferable skills training and 3) virtual reality training to enhance communication skills.
 Benton, L., Johnson, H., Widening participation in technology design: A review of the involvement of children with special educational needs and disabilities, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, Vol. 3, pp. 23-40, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2015.07.001
 Newell, A. F., Gregor, P., Morgan, M., Pullin, G., Macaulay, C., User-sensitive inclusive design. Universal Access in the Information Society, Vol. 10, Nr. 3, pp. 235-243, 2011 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-010-0203-y
 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), “ISO 9241-210:2010: Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems”, Geneva Switzerland: ISO, 2010
 Muller, M. J., Druin, A., “Participatory Design: The third space in HCI”, In J. Jacko (Ed.), The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook – 3rd Edition, pp. 273-291. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2011.
 “Responsible Research & Innovation”, (2017, January 18). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/responsible-research-innovation
 Von Schomberg, R., “A vision of responsible research and innovation”, In R. Owen, M. Heintz and J. Bessant (Eds), Responsible innovation: Managing the responsible emergence of science and innovation in society, pp. 51-74. London: John Wiley, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118551424.ch3
 Durkin, K., Videogames and young people with developmental disorders, Review of General Psychology, Vol. 14, Nr. 2, pp. 122-140, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019438
 Malinverni, L., Mora-Guiard, J., Padillo, V., Valero, L., Hervás, A., Pares, N., An inclusive design approach for developing video games for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Computers in Human Behavior, (In press), 2016.
 Benton, L., Johnson, H., Brosnan, M., Ashwin, E., Grawemeyer, B., “IDEAS: an interface design experience for the autistic spectrum”. In CHI'11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1759-1764), ACM, 2011 https://doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979841
 Robb, N., Waller, A., Woodcock, K. A. (2015). “The development of TASTER, a cognitive training game using human-centred design, tailored for children with global and specific cognitive impairments”. In proceedings of Virtual worlds and games for serious applications, Skövde, Sweden, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/VS-GAMES.2015.7295788
 Linenhall, C., Kirman, B., Lawson, S., Chan, G.G.," Practical Appropriate Empirically-Validated Guidelines for Designing Educational Games", CHI'11 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1979-1988, 2012
 Keenan, M., Dillenburger, K., When all you have is a hammer …: RCTs and hegemony in science, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 5, Nr. 1, pp. 1–13, 2011. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.02.003
 Green, G., Brennan, L. C., Fein, D., Intensive behavioral treatment for a toddler at high risk for autism, Behavior Modification, Vol. 26, Nr. 1, pp. 69–102, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445502026001005
 Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., Sturmey, P., A meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 5, Nr. 1, pp. 60–69, 2011. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.03.011
 Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., Heward, W. L., Applied Behavior Analysis, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007
 Dillenburger, K., The emperor’s new clothes: Eclecticism in autism treatment, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 5, Nr. 3, pp. 1119–1128, 2011. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.12.008
 Dillenburger, K., Why reinvent the wheel? A behaviour analyst’s reflections on pedagogy for inclusion for students with intellectual and developmental disability, Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Vol. 37, Nr. 2, pp. 169–180, 2012. http://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2012.685705
 Dillenburger, K., Keenan, M., Doherty, A., Byrne, T., Gallagher, S., ABA-Based Programs for Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parental and Professional Experiences at School and at Home, Child & Family Behavior Therapy, Vol. 34, pp. 111–129, 2012. http://doi.org/10.1080/07317107.2012.684645
 Grindle, C. F., Hastings, R. P., Saville, M., Hughes, J. C., Huxley, K., Kovshoff, H., … Remington, B., Outcomes of a behavioral education model for children with autism in a mainstream school setting, Behavior Modification, Vol. 36, Nr. 3, pp. 298–319, 2012. http://doi.org/10.1177/0145445512441199
 Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., Wolery, M., The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education, Exceptional Children, Vol. 71, Nr. 2, pp. 165–179, 2005. http://doi.org/10.1177/001440290507100203
 Dillenburger, K., McKerr, L., Jordan, J.A., Lost in translation: Public policies, evidence-based practice, and Autism Spectrum Disorder, International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, Vol. 61, Nr. 2, pp. 134–151, 2014. http://doi.org/10.1080/1034912X.2014.905059
 Dillenburger, K., "Staff training", In J. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of Autism Treatments, US: Springer, 2016.
 Fennell, B., Dillenburger, K., Applied behaviour analysis: What do teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder know, International Journal of Educational Research, (In Press), 2016. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S088303551630057X https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.06.012
 Allor, J.H., Champlin, T.M., Gifford, D.B. & Mathes, P.G., Methods for Increasing the Intensity of Reading Instruction for Students with Intellectual Disabilities, Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 45, Nr. 4, pp. 500-511, 2010
 Allor, J.H., Mathes, P.G., Roberts, J.K., Cheatham, J.P. & Al Otaiba, S., Is Scientifically Based Reading Instruction Effective for Students With Below-Average IQs? Exceptional children, Vol. 80, Nr. 3, pp. 287-306, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402914522208
 Heimann, M., Nelson, K.E., Tjus, T., Gillberg, C., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 25, pp. 459-480, 1995. doi:10.1007/BF02178294
 Grindle, C.F., Hughes, J.C., Saville, M., Huxley, K. & Hastings, R.P., Teaching Early Reading Skills to Children with Autism Using Mimiosprout Early Reading, Behavioral Interventions, Vol. 28, pp. 203-224, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1364
 Plavnick, J.B., Marchand-martella, N.E., Martella, R.C., Thompson, J.L. & Wood, A.L., A Review of Explicit and Systematic Scripted Instructional Programs for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 2, Nr. 1, pp. 55-66, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-014-0036-3
 Wouters, P., van Oostendorp, H., A meta-analytic review of the role of instructional support in game-based learning, Computers and Education, Vol. 60, Nr. 1, pp. 412-425, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.018
 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, (2002) 20 U. S. C. 70 6301 et seq.
 National Reading Panel (U.S.), (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel - Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (reports of the subgroups), Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 2000.
 Alberto, P.A., Heflin, J., Literacy: Introduction to the Special Series, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 22, Nr. 4, pp. 204-205, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1177/10883576070220040201
 Bartle, R. A., Designing Virtual Worlds, US: New Riders Publishing, 2004
 Bell, M. W., Toward a definition of “virtual worlds”, Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, Vol. 1, Nr. 1, pp. 1–5, 2008.
 Roussou, M., Learning by doing and learning through play: an exploration of interactivity in virtual environments for children, Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 2, Nr. 1, pp. 10-10, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1145/973801.973818
 Garris, R., Ahlers, R., Driskell, J. E., Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model, Simulation & gaming, Vol. 33, Nr. 4, pp. 441-467, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878102238607
 Ott, M., Tavella, M., A contribution to the understanding of what makes young students genuinely engaged in computer-based learning tasks, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 1, Nr. 1, pp. 184-188, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.034
 Newbutt, N., Immersive Learning Environments: The State of the Art - Learnovate Project Report, Ireland: Trinity College Dublin, 2013.
 Childs, M., Learners' Experience of Presence in Virtual Worlds, Thesis (PhD), University of Warwick, 2010.
 Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Ducheneaut, N., The Proteus effect: Implications of transformed digital self-representation on online and offline behaviour, Communication Research, Vol. 36, Nr. 2, pp. 285–312, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650208330254
 de Freitas, S., Rebolledo?Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F., Magoulas, G., Poulovassilis, A., Learning as immersive experiences: Using the four?dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual world, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 41, Nr. 1, pp. 69-85, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01024.x
 Papastergiou, M., Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation, Computers & Education, Vol. 52, Nr. 1, pp. 1-12, 2009 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.004
 National Autistic Society, The autism employment gap, 2016 Retrieved from http://www.autism.org.uk/get-involved/tmi/employment.aspx
 Remington, A., Why employing autistic people makes good business sense, April 2015, Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/why-employing-autistic-people-makes-good-business-sense-39948
 Mottron, L., Changing perceptions: The power of autism, Nature, Vol. 479, Nr. 7371, pp. 33-35, 2011 https://doi.org/10.1038/479033a
 Remington, A., Swettenham, J., Campbell, R., Coleman, M., Selective attention and perceptual load in autism spectrum disorder, Psychological Science, Vol. 20, Nr. 11, pp. 1388-1393, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02454.x
 De Martino, B., Harrison, N. A., Knafo, S., Bird, G., & Dolan, R. J. (2008). Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision making in autism, Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 28, Nr. 42, pp. 10746-10750. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2895-08.2008
 Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Gernsbacher, M. A., Mottron, L., The level and nature of autistic intelligence, Psychological science, Vol. 18, Nr. 8, pp. 657-662, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x
 Chen, J. L., Leader, G., Sung, C., Leahy, M., Trends in employment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a review of the research literature, Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 2, Nr 2, pp. 115-127, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-014-0041-6
 Schaller, J., Yang, N. K., Competitive employment for people with autism: correlates of successful closure in competitive and supported employment, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, Vol. 49, Nr. 1, pp. 4–16, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1177/00343552050490010201
 López, B., Keenan, L., Barriers to employment in autism: future challenges to implementing the Adult Autism Strategy. Autism Research Network, 2014
 Hastwell, J., Harding, J., Martin, N., Baron-Cohen, S., Asperger Syndrome Student Project, 2009-12: Final Project Report, University of Cambridge, June 2013
 Johnson, J., Exploring the Social Experiences of Adults on the Autistic Spectrum: Views on Friendships, Dating and Partnerships, 2014. https://curve.carleton.ca/system/files/theses/31686.pdf
 3DNovations – European Foundations Award for Responsible Research & Innovation (n.d.). http://efarri.eu/finalist/3dnovations/ Accessed 6/2/2017.
 Bivand, P., Melville, D., Work Programme Statistics: Learning and Work Institute Analysis, Leicester UK: Learning and Work Institute, March 2016.
 RRI Tools (n.d.), https://www.rri-tools.eu/ Accessed 6/2/2017
 Freina, L., Ott, M., A Literature Review on Immersive Virtual Reality in Education: State of the Art and Perspectives, eLearning & Software for Education, Vol. 2015, Nr. 1, pp. 133–141, 2015.
 Standen, P. J., Brown, D. J., Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of people with intellectual disabilities: review, Cyberpsychology and behavior, Vol. 8, Nr. 3, pp. 272-282, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2005.8.272
 Opensimulator (Opensim) platform, http://opensimulator.org/wiki/Main_Page
 Reimann, P., Freebody, P., Hornibrook, M., Howard, S., Immersive learning environments, Australia: The University of Sydney, 2009 [Online] Available: http://www.ndlrn.edu.au/verve/_resources/Study_of_teachers_using_TLF_resources_2009.pdf
How to Cite
IJSG copyright information is provided here.