International Journal of Serious Games <p class="Els-body-text">The IJSG publishes original scientific papers of significant and lasting value in all areas related to design, development, engineering, deployment, and assessment of digital Serious Games (SGs). The journal encourages submission of manuscripts that enhance the theoretical foundations of game-based learning and SG design, show innovative technological solutions aimed to improve teaching and learning, and/or provide user studies about deployment of SGs in educational or corporate training settings. Papers investigating business/product analysis and market penetration are welcome as well.</p> <p class="Els-body-text">All papers should advance the state of the art in the relevant area. Empirical studies are strongly encouraged. Papers may be one of several types: research paper; tutorial/survey; research note/short paper; software/algorithms; addendum/corrections; datasets.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p class="Els-body-text">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" align="center">&nbsp;</p> Serious Games Society en-US International Journal of Serious Games 2384-8766 <p>IJSG copyright information is provided <a href="/~serious/index.php/IJSG/about#authorsRights">here</a>.</p> Editorial. Vol. 8, Issue 2 <p>Editorial for Issue 2, Vol. 8 of the International Journal of Serious Games</p> Alessandro De Gloria Copyright (c) 2021 Alessandro De Gloria 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 1 2 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.447 Serious Game Top Eleven as an Educational Tool in Sports Economics <p>The aim of the present study is to explore the use of the serious game Top Eleven as an auxiliary educational tool in a sports economics undergraduate course. This attempt is warranted by the fact that serious games can provide real life/work experiences and set the ground for managerial – economics skills development. The selection of the specific serious game is based on the ample and varied sports economics data provided and its free of charge online accessibility. Following the case study methodology, a virtual football club was created and managed within Top Eleven. The stated research questions were based on the analysis and application of the generated data to a number of economic concepts identified in a specific sports economics textbook. Based on the analysis results, twelve out of 17 in total identified economic concepts were successfully analyzed using eleven economic data sources of items embedded in the game. The implementation phase showed that Top Eleven could be used as an educational supporting tool in the form of virtual internship for gaining of practical experience by applying sports economic concepts for the financial management of a professional football club. It is argued that the game offers a sensible working environment in sports economics and the associated sport management field.</p> Ioannis Afthinos Vasileios Manasis Thodoros-Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos Copyright (c) 2021 Ioannis Afthinos, Vasileios Manasis, Thodoros-Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 3 19 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.420 A review of digital serious games for tsunami risk communication <p><em>The research conducted a thorough review of evidence and effectiveness of digital serious games (SGs) for communication of action-oriented key messages (related to tsunami evacuation) to children. Significant scientific research investigates tsunami risk which is not always effectively communicated to children who are expected to make appropriate decisions during a tsunami event. SGs can motivate children and enhance risk communication. Computing technologies offer a delivery platform to access digital SGs which require little educator training and motivate learners. The research reviewed evidence of effective SGs that address tsunami risk and are deployable by educators. Based on this review, it is evident that very few suitable classroom deployable, digital SGs that address tsunami evacuation decision-making are available. Results showed only 2 suitable, available games. Similarly, while general evidence of the effectiveness of digital SGs was found, the evaluation of and evidence for the specific effectiveness of the available games was extremely limited. The education establishment and disaster community could exploit SG technology more effectively to communicate natural hazard risk to children in a global context where such risk is increasing. The research informs future game development projects which need to embrace comprehensive stakeholder involvement and inputs. Recommendations for serious game development projects are proposed.</em></p> Steven Hawthorn Rui Jesus Maria Ana Baptista Copyright (c) 2021 Steven Hawthorn 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 21 47 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.411 Procedural generation of problems for elementary math education <p>Mathematics education plays an essential role in children’s development, and there are many online applications aimed at supporting this process. However, manually creating math problems with a variety of textual and visual content is very time-consuming and expensive. This article presents a generic approach for procedural generation of mathematical problems, including their corresponding textual representations. The content generation process consists of two phases: abstract math problem generation and text generation. For the generation of abstract math problems, we propose a generic template-based method that operates across a variety of difficulty-levels and domains, including arithmetic, comparison, ordering, mathematical relationships, measurement, and geometry. Subsequently, we propose a multi-language adaptive textual content generation pipeline to realize the generated abstract math problems into semantically coherent text questions in natural language. A workflow time gain evaluation shows that the system yields an average time saving of 56%. Further, human expert evaluation of this approach indicates that the content it generates is sensible and solvable for primary school students.</p> Yi Xu Roger Smeets Rafael Bidarra Copyright (c) 2021 Yi Xu, Roger Smeets, Rafael Bidarra 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 49 66 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.396 Using Greenfoot as a Tool for Serious Games Programming Education and Development <p><em>Greenfoot is an educational programming environment that aims to motivate students in learning object-oriented programming (OOP) through the development of simple games and simulations. Several studies have presented positive results regarding the usage of Greenfoot as a tool for introducing novices to OOP. In this article, we propose using Greenfoot as a tool for introducing novices to (serious) games programming, as well as a tool for implementing serious games (SGs). As a proof of concept, the design and implementation of an SG for learning OOP utilizing Greenfoot and a survey on the perceptions of graduates that had been introduced to SGs programming with Greenfoot in the context of a relevant Master course are presented. The results show that Greenfoot, although not developed for this purpose, can be utilized both as a tool for introducing novices to (serious) games programming and as a tool for developing SGs.</em></p> Stelios Xinogalos Margarita Maria Tryfou Copyright (c) 2021 Stelios Xinogalos, Margarita Maria Tryfou 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 67 86 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.425 Developing a novel psychographic-behavioral qualitative mapping method for exergames <p class="AbstractText">Location-based augmented reality games, used in several smartphone devices, have the potential to improve health outcomes by transforming gaming from a sedentary leisure pursuit to an active leisure pursuit thus having positive physical, psychological and social implications. We consider two games, Harry Potter: Wizards Unite and Pokémon GO, by qualitatively mapping both psychographic and behavioral data to profile groups of players to fully understand how we can better design location-based augmented reality exergames to improve exercise and health. Data was collected through an online open-ended, text-box survey (proforma) hosted on Qualtrics, with participants reached via virtual snowballing. The proforma was posted on four subreddit forums dedicated to Harry Potter: Wizards Unite and Pokémon GO for two weeks, and 1052 participants responded. Our study aligns with a deductive category application, with all highlighted excerpts coded using a predetermined coding scheme. Overall, three themes were identified: 1) Player Loyalty, 2) Player Involvement and 3) Player Constraints. We conclude that psychographic constraints experienced can negatively influence player preference and behavior. However, psychographic enablers such as player involvement with the franchise and player loyalty toward the brand can act to sustain continued gameplay across different player types and should not be underestimated as a powerful influence in decision-making, choice behavior, and behavior change (to improve exercise and health).</p> James Smith Matthew D Lee Louise A Ellis Kiran Ijaz Kathleen Yin Copyright (c) 2021 James Smith, Matthew D Lee, Louise A Ellis, Kiran Ijaz, Kathleen Yin 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 87 107 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.422 Serious Game Design to Support Children Struggling with School Refusal <p class="AbstractText"><em>A significant number of children worldwide struggle with school refusal. Games and digital tools represent a novel take on how to address this phenomenon. Our research aims to support children who are at risk or in an early phase of developing school refusal through serious games. In this paper we present current work, grounded in human-centered design, involving the application of a game design framework to elaborate on design elements and empirical evaluations of a serious game called Gnist (English: Spark). Based on this we discuss some implications for game design and key takeaways for researchers and practitioners working to design technologies for supporting children's well-being in attending school. We contribute to position serious games in a new context and anticipate our findings to be valuable to the Human-Computer Interaction community in general and specifically to the Child-Computer Interaction community.</em></p> Marikken Høiseth Ole Andreas Alsos Sindre Holme Sondre Ek Charlotte Tendenes Gabrielsen Copyright (c) 2021 Marikken Høiseth, Ole Andreas Alsos, Sindre Holme, Sondre Ek, Charlotte Tendenes Gabrielsen 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 109 128 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.416 Serious board games: modding existing games for collaborative ideation processes <p>Modern board games are booming, exploring new design elements, and providing dynamics that can support unique experiences. Serious game approaches can benefit from these insights and novelty. With the appropriate adaptation, modern board games may become flexible and cheaper ways to use and prototype serious games. Exploring these games and player engagement can support digital game design. Digital game designers may learn from modern board games to playtest player engagement and build prototypes for their serious games. This paper describes an experience with several adapted modern board games aiming to create a “Light Collaborative Ideation Process”, supported by the “Engagement Design” model and “The big five personality traits”. The game session objectives concerned fostering collaboration and ideation among participants in an informal meeting. The session successfully supported the potential of using modern board games, although showing the limitations and future developments required to benefit from the modding approach.</p> Micael Sousa Copyright (c) 2021 Micael Sousa 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 8 2 129 146 10.17083/ijsg.v8i2.405