Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

Esther Kuindersma, Jelke van der Pal, Jaap van den Herik, Aske Plaat

Abstract


Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.


Keywords


serious games · effectiveness · learning effect · mandatory play

Full Text:

PDF

References


Michael, D., Chen, S.: Serious Games: Games That Educate, Train and Inform. Thomson, Boston (2006).

Wu, W., Hsiao, H., Wu, P., Lin, C., Huang, S.: Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 28(3), 265-279 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00437.x

Wouters, P., Van Nimwegen, C., Van Oostendorp, H., Van Der Spek, E.: Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology 105(2), 249-265 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031311

Heeter, C., Lee, Y., Magerko, B., Medler, B.: Impacts of Forced Serious Game Play on Vulnerable Subgroups. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations 3(3), 34-53 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/jgcms.2011070103

Mollick, E., Rothbard, N.: Mandatory Fun: Consent, Gamification and the Impact of Games at Work. The Wharton School Research Paper Series (2014).

Susi, T., Johanneson, M., Backlund, P.: Serious Games - An overview. Technical Paper, University of Skövde, Skövde (2007).

Djaouti, D., Alvarez, J., Jessel, J., Rampnoux, O.: Origins of Serious Games. In Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., Jain, L. (eds.): Serious Games and Edutainment Applications. Springer-Verlag, London (2011) 25-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9_3

Abt, C.: Serious Games. Viking Press, New York (1970).

Sawyer, B., Rajeski, D.: Serious Games: Improving Public Policy through Game-Based Learning and Simulation. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington D.C. (2002).

Salen, K., Zimmerman, E.: Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004).

McGonigal, J.: Reality Is Broken. Penguin Press, New York (2011).

Huizinga, J.: Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture. Beacon Press, Boston (1955).

Caillois, R.: Man, Play and Games. University of Illinois Press, Champaign (1961).

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., Driskell, J.: Games, Motivation, and Learning: a Research and Practice Model. Simulation & Gaming 33(4), 441-467 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878102238607

Prensky, M.: Computer Games and Learning: Digital Game-Based Learning. In Raessens, J., Goldstein, J. (eds.): Handbook of Computer Game Studies. MIT Press, Cambridge (2005) 97-122.

Breuer, J., Bente, G.: Why So Serious? On the Relation of Serious Games and Learning. Eludamos, Journal for Computer Game Culture 4(1), 7-24 (2010)

Cain, J., Piascik, P.: Are Serious Games a Good Strategy for Pharmacy Education? American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(4), Article 47 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe79447

Fulton, S., Schweitzer, D.: Impact of Giving Students a Choice of Homework Assignments in an Introductory Computer Science Class. International Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 5(1), Article 20 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2011.050120

Becker, K.: How Much Choice is Too Much? Inroads 38(4), 78-82 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1189136.1189176

Gauthier, A., Corrin, M., Jenkinson, J.: Exploring the Influence of Game Design on Learning and Voluntary Use in an Online Vascular Anatomy Study Aid. Computers & Education 87, 24-34 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.017

Kuindersma, E. C., Van der Pal, J., Van den Herik, H. J., Plaat, A.: Voluntary Play in Serious Games. Paper presented at the GaLA Conference, Rome (2015).

Hernon, P., Whitman, J. R.: Delivering Satisfaction and Service Quality: a Customer-Based Approach for Libraries. American Library Association, Chicago, IL (2001).

Coelho, P., Esteves, S.: The Choice Between a Five-Point and a Ten-Point Scale in the Framework of Customer Satisfaction Measurement. International Journal of Market Research 49(3), 313-339 (2007).

Ryan, R. M.: Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43, 450-461 (1982). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.3.450

Selfdeterminationtheory.org: Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) Scale Description. Retrieved on March 22, 2016 from http://selfdeterminationtheory.org

/intrinsic-motivation-inventory/.

Vroom, V. H.: Work and motivation. Wiley, New York (1964).

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., Ryan, R. M.: A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin 125(6), 627 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v3i3.133

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Serious Games Society


Creative Commons LicenseThe International Journal of Serious Games (IJSG) by Serious Games Society is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.