Observation and analysis of a classroom teaching and learning practice based on augmented reality and serious games on mobile platforms

  • Sylvie Barma Laval University
  • Sylvie Daniel Université Laval
  • Nathalie Bacon Université Laval
  • Marie-Andrée Gingras Cégep de Sainte-Foy
  • Mathieu Fortin Cégep de Sainte-Foy
Keywords: mobile learning, augmented reality, serious games, design-based research, physics.

Abstract

This qualitative research is part of a learning effort to better understand how serious games are exploited in a science education context. The research team examined this issue by focusing on augmented reality as a technological innovation imbedded on a tablet. Given the current state of knowledge related to serious games and augmented reality, and given the fact that its use in the context of teaching/learning is not extended, this paper focuses on an initial exploration of how a new teaching practice involving a serious game based on an interactive augmented reality solution would impact on students in a physics class. A Design Based Research methodology was applied in a real‑world context within a college‑level physics class. Two conceptual tests containing ten questions on spatial notions regarding electromagnetic fields were administered to two control groups and two groups using the proposed serious game. The latter groups were administrated a game evaluation questionnaire as well. Thematic interpretation of students written responses to the evaluation questionnaire as well as the lessons and observations we derived from the in-class experimentation are provided and discussed in the paper.

Author Biography

Sylvie Barma, Laval University
Sylvie Barma is a professor of Science Education at the Faculty of Education at Laval University since 2008. After teaching high school science for twenty years and contributing to the development of the new Quebec Science and Technology curriculum, she obtained a Ph. D. in Science Education. She is also Program director of a preservice teachers’ training program.

References

[1] Wali, E., Winters, N. and Oliver, M., Maintaining, changing and crossing contexts: an activity theoretic reinterpretation of mobile learning, The journal of the Association for Learning Technology, Research in Learning Technology, Vol. 16, Nr. 1, pp. 41-57, March 2008. DOI: 10.1080/09687760701850190
[2] Uden, L., Activity theory for designing mobile learning, International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, Vol. 1, Nr. 1, pp. 81-102, February 2007. DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2007.011190
[3] Savill-Smith, C., and Kent P., The use of palmtop computers for learning: a review of the literature, London: Learning and Skills Development Agency, 2003
[4] Zurita, G. and Nussbaum, M., A constructivist mobile learning environment supported by a wireless handheld network, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol. 20, Nr. 4, pp. 235–243, August 2004. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2004.00089.x
[5] Piette, J, Pons, C.- M. and Giroux, L., Les jeunes et Internet 2006: Appropriation des nouvelles technologies, Québec: Ministère de la culture et des communications, 2007.
[6] Prensky, M., Digital game-based learning, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. DOI: 10.1145/950566.950596
[7] Kaplan Akili, G., “Games and Simulations: A New Approach in Education?” In D. Gibson, C. Aldrich, and M. Prensky, Games and simulations in online learning: research and development frameworks Hershey, PA; Idea Group Inc. (IGI), 2007. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-304-3
[8] Pachler N., Bachmair B., and Cook J., Mobile Learning: Structures, Agency, Practices, Springer Science & Business Media, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0585-7
[9] Canadian Council on Learning, (May 2009), State of E-learning in Canada. Available: http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/E-learning/E-Learning_Report_FINAL-e.PDF
[10] Barma, S., Power, T.M. and Daniel, S. (August 2010), Réalité augmentée et jeu mobile pour une éducation aux sciences et à la technologie. Culture numérique. Réseau scientifique pluridisciplinaire dans le domaine des technologies, applications et pratiques liées au numérique. Available: http://culture.numerique.free.fr/publications/ludo10/barma_power_daniel_ludovia_2010.pdf
[11] Michaud, L., and Alvarez, J., Serious games: Advergaming, edugaming, training. Paris: IDATE, 2008.
[12] Waycott, J., Jones, A., and Scanlon, E., PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis, Learning, Media & Technology, Vol. 30, Nr. 2, pp. 107-130, 2005. DOI:10.1080/17439880500093513
[13] Hennessy, S., Graphing investigations using portable (palmtop) technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp. 243–258, September 2000. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2729.2000.00136.x
[14] Millonig, A., and Gartner, G., Show me my way: the use of human spatio–temporal behaviour patterns for developing ubiquitous way finding systems, In M. Wachowicz (Ed), Movement-aware applications for sustainable mobility: technologies and approaches (Chapter 10), IGI Global, Hershey, pp 157–174, 2010. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-769-5.ch010
[15] Power, M., Daniel, S., Barma, S., and Harrap, R., Playing With Fire: Kindling Learning Through Mobile Gaming, In M. Ciussi and E. Gebers Freitas (Ed.), Leading Issues in eLearning Research, Academic Publishing International (API) United Kingdom, Vol. 1, pp. 137-156, 2012.
[16] Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., and Kishino, F., Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. SPIE, Boston, Vol. 2351, pp. 282-292, October 1994. DOI:10.1117/12.197321
[17] Echeverría, A., García-Campo, C., Nussbaum, M., Gil, F., Villalta, M, Améstica, M., and Echeverría, S., “A framework for the design and integration of collaborative classroom games”, In Computers and Education, Vol. 57, Nr. 1, pp. 1127-1136, August 2011. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.12.010.
[18] Dillenbourg, P., and Jermann, P., Technology for classroom orchestration, In M. S. Khine (Ed.), and I. M. Saleh (Ed.), New Science of Learning, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, pp. 525-552, 2010. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4419-5716-0_26
[19] Oda, O., and Feiner, S., “Rolling and shooting: two augmented reality games”, In Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM, pp. 3041-3044, 2010. DOI: 10.1145/1753846.1753914
[20] Kaufmann, H., and Schmalstieg, D., Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality, Computers & Graphics, Vol. 27, Nr. 3, pp. 339-345, June 2003. DOI: 10.1016/S0097-8493(03)00028-1.
[21] Bergig, O., Hagbi, N., El-Sana, J. and Billinghurst, M.,“In-place 3D sketching for authoring and augmenting mechanical systems”, In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 87-94, 2009. DOI: 10.1109/ISMAR.2009.5336490
[22] Billinghurst, M. and Dünser, A., Augmented reality in the classroom, IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 45, Nr. 7, pp. 56-63, July 2012. DOI: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2012.111
[23] Liarokapis, F., Mourkoussis, N., White, M., Darcy, J., Sifniotis, M., Petridis, P., Basu, A., and Lister, P.F., Web3D and augmented reality to support engineering education, World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, Vol. 3, Nr. 1, pp. 11-14, 2004.
[24] Nickels, S., Sminia, H., Mueller, S.C., Kools, B., Dehof, A.K., Lenhof, H.P., and Hildebrandt, A., “ProteinScanAR – An augmented reality web application for high school education in biomolecular life sciences”, In Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization, Saarbrucken, Germany, pp. 578-583 July 2012. DOI: 10.1109/IV.2012.97
[25] Cepni, S., Ayvaci, H.S., and Keles¸ E., Understanding level of certificate students about physics concepts. The Congress of National Educational Sciences, Bolu, Turkey: Abant Izzet Baysal University, pp. 1335-1342, 2000.
[26] Hestenes, D., Wells, M., and Swackhamer, G., Force Concept Inventory, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 30, pp. 141-158, March 1992. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.2343497
[27] Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., and Mitchell, R., Affordances and Limitations of Immersive Participatory Augmented Reality Simulations for Teaching and Learning, Journal of Science Education Technology, Vol. 18, Nr. 1, pp. 7-22, February 2009. DOI: 10.1007/s10956-008-9119-1
[28] Sanchez, E. and Jouneau-Sion, C, Les jeux, des espaces de réflexivité permettant la mise en œuvre de démarches d’investigation, In L. Sauvé and D. Kaufman (Eds.), Ressources et travail collectif dans la mise en place des démarches d’investigation dans l’enseignement des sciences. Actes des journées scientifiques, DIES Lyon, 2010.
[29] Viennot, L, Enseigner la physique. Editions De Boeck & Larcier, 2002.
[30] Brown, A., Design experiments: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges in Creating Complex Interventions in Classroom Settings, The Journal of The Learning Sciences, Laurence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Vol. 2, Nr. 2, pp. 141-178, 1992. DOI: 10.1207/s15327809jls0202_
[31] Bereiter, C., Design Research for Sustained Innovation. Cognitive Studies, Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society, Vol. 9, Nr. 3, pp. 321-327, 2002. DOI: http://doi.org/10.11225/jcss.9.321
[32] Design-Based Research Collective, Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry, Educational Researcher, Vol. 32, Nr. 1, pp. 5-8, January/February 2003. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X032001005
[33] Kincheloe, J. L. and Berry, K. S., Rigour and complexity in educational research: Conceptualizing the bricolage. McGraw Hill, England: Open University Press, 2004.
[34] Paavola, S., and Hakkarainen, K., The Knowledge Creation Metaphor – An Emergent Epistemological Approach to Learning Science & Education, Vol. 14, Nr. 6, pp. 535-557, August 2005. DOI: 10.1007/s11191-004-5157-0
[35] Anderson, T., and Shattuck, J., Design-Based Research: A Decade of Progress in Education Research?, Educational Researcher, Vol. 41, Nr. 1, pp. 16-25, January/February 2012. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X11428813
[36] Charmaz, K., Grounded theory in the 21st Century. Applications for Advancing Social Justice Studies, In N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2005.
[37] Sanchez, E., Ney, M., and Labat, J. M., Jeux sérieux et pédagogie universitaire : de la conception à l’évaluation des apprentissages. International Journal of Technologies In Higher Education, Vol. 8, Nr. 1-2, pp. 48-57, August 2011. DOI: 10.7202/1005783ar
[38] Maloney, D. P., O’Kuma, T. L., Heiggelke, C. J. and Heuvelen, A. V., Surveying students’ conceptual knowledge of electricity and magnetism. Physic Education Resources, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 69, Nr. 7, pp. S12-S23, 2001. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.1371296
[39] Ding, L., Chabay, R., Sherwood, B., Beichner, R., Evaluating an electricity and magnetism assessment tool: Brief electricity and magnetism assessment. Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research, Vol. 2, Nr. 1, March 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.2.010105
[40] Yin, C., Ogata, H., and Yano, Y., Participatory simulation framework to support learning computer science, International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, Vol. 1, Nr. 3, pp. 288–304, 2007
[41] Alvarez, J. (2012, May 29). Les clés de la réussite d’un Serious Game par Julian Alvarez. Available: http://www.ludovia.com/2012/05/les-cles-de-la-reussite-dun-serious-game-par-julian-alvarez/
[42] Sharples, M. , Sánchez, I. A., Milrad, M., and Vavoula, G., “Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning”, In Proceedings of mLearn,4th World Conference on Learning, Vol, 1, Nr. 1, pp. 1- 9, Septembre 2005.
Published
2015-06-17
How to Cite
Barma, S., Daniel, S., Bacon, N., Gingras, M.-A., & Fortin, M. (2015). Observation and analysis of a classroom teaching and learning practice based on augmented reality and serious games on mobile platforms. International Journal of Serious Games, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v2i2.66
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.