Game-based Training of Listening Skills: The Effects of Degraded Communications

Authors

  • Clint Bowers Department of Psychology University of Central Florida
  • Talib Hussain BBN/Raytheon
  • Katelyn Procci Dept. of Psychology University of Central Florida

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v1i4.44

Keywords:

training, game, synthesized speech, multimedia learning

Abstract

Many important tasks depend upon the ability of personnel to be able to extract information from verbal communication in suboptimal conditions. However, there is little guidance in how best to train people to improve this skill, specifically regarding the most effective combination of human or synthesized speech with or without text captions.  In this study, we examined two competing theories, the cognitive theory of multimedia learning versus resilient listening, to determine best practices for designing a game to train active listening skills in complex environments. One-hundred and nineteen U.S. Navy recruits (53% male, average age of 21.5 years) participated in this study.  The results indicated that games with degraded auditory conditions did not improve listening abilities in a transfer condition.  Games using recorded human voices resulted in the best performance.

Author Biography

Clint Bowers, Department of Psychology University of Central Florida

Professor, Dept. of Psychology

References

Bowers, C. A., Jentsch, F., Salas, E., & Braun, C. C. (1998). Analyzing communication sequences for team training needs assessment. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 40(4), 672-679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/001872098779649265

Achille, L. B., Schulze, K. G., & Schmidt-Nielson, A. S. (1995). An analysis of communication and use of military terms in Navy team training. Military Psychology, 7(2), 95-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327876mp0702_4

Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Salas, E. (1998). Team performance and training in complex environments: Recent findings from applied research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7(3), 83-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10773005

Jacobson, S. K. (2009). Communication skills for conservation professionals. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Raybourn, E. M. (2005). Adaptive thinking and leadership training for cultural awareness and communication competence. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 2(2), 131 - 134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17415650580000038

Johnsen, K., Dickerson, R., Raij, A., Lok, B., Jackson, J., Shin, M., Hernandex, J., Stevens, A., & Lind, D. S. (2005). Experiences in using immersive virtual characters to educate medical communication skills. Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2005 (pp. 179-186, 324). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2005.1492772

Luce, P. A., Feustel, T. C., &Pisoni, D. B. (1983). Capacity demands in short-term memory for synthetic and natural speech. Human Factors, 25(1), 17-32.

Mayer, R. E. (2002). Multimedia learning. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 41, 85-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(02)80005-6

Oppenheimer, D. M. (2008). The secret life of fluency. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(6), 237-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.02.014

Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 358-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.358

Moreno, R. & Mayer, R. E. (2002a). Learning science in virtual reality multimedia environments: Role of methods and media. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 598-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.598

Moreno, R. & Mayer, R. E. (2002b). Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When reading helps listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 156-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.156

Lai, J., Wood, D., & Considine, M. (2000, April). The effect of task conditions on the comprehensibility of synthetic speech. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 321-328). ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/332040.332451

Waterworth, J. A., & Thomas, C. M. (1985). Why is synthetic speech harder to remember than natural speech? CHI 85’ Proceedings (pp. 201-206). New York: ACM.

Hongpaisanwiwat, C. & Lewis, M. (2003). Attentional effect of animated character. In M. Rauterberg, M. Menozzi, & W. Janet (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT '03 (pp. 423-431). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Schwab, E. C., Nusbaum, H. C., & Pisoni, D. B. (1985). Some effects of training on the perception of synthetic speech. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 27(4), 395-408.

Diemand-Yauman, C., Oppenheimer, D. M., & Vaughan, E. B. (2011). Fortune favor the bold (and the italicized): Effects of disfluency on educational outcomes. Cognition, 118, 111-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.012

Kirschner, P. A. (2002). Cognitive load theory: Implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning. Learning and instruction, 12(1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00014-7

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355
Clark, R. C., Nguyen, F., & Sweller, J. (2011). Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pfi.4930450920

Hussain, T. S., Menaker, E., Pounds, K., Bowers, C., Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Murphy, C., Koenig, A., Wainess, R., & Lee, J. (2009, Nov. – Dec.). Designing and developing effective training games for the US Navy. Paper presented at I/ITSEC 2009, Orlando, FL.

Hussain, T. S., Bowers, C., Blasko-Drabik, H. & Blair, L. (in press). Validating cognitive readiness on team performance following individual game-based training. In H. F. O’Neil, R. S. Perez & E. L. Baker (Eds.), Teaching and measuring cognitive readiness. New York: Springer.

Bowers, C., Hussain, T., Roberts, B., Cannon-Bowers, J., & Blair, L. (under review). Preparing to practice: The use of a game-based simulation as a pre-training intervention for recruits. Simulation & Gaming.

Steadman, R. H., Coates, W. C., Huang, Y. M., Matevosian, R., Larmon, B. R., McCullough, L., & Ariel, D. (2006). Simulation-based training is superior to problem-based learning for the acquisition of critical assessment and management skills. Critical care medicine, 34(1), 151-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000190619.42013.94

Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. (2011). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (5th ed.). Champaign, IL US: Human Kinetics.

Guckenberger, Dutch and Stanney, Kay M. (1995): Poor Man's Virtual Reality. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. p. 1063.

Koonce, J. M. (2002). Human factors in the training of pilots. London: Taylor & Francis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203164587

Worm, G. I. M., van der Wees, M., de Winter, J. C. F., de Graaf, L., Wieringa, P. A., & Rietveld, L. C. (2012). Training and assessment with a faster than real-time simulation of a drinking water treatment plant. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 21(1), 52-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2011.09.007

Downloads

Published

2014-10-31

How to Cite

Bowers, C., Hussain, T., & Procci, K. (2014). Game-based Training of Listening Skills: The Effects of Degraded Communications. International Journal of Serious Games, 1(4). https://doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v1i4.44

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)